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台灣藝術家英文簡傳(12)-詩人向陽



Poet Xiang Yang 

編輯/邱斐顯 

EditiorFelicity Fei-Hsien Chiu 

 

A note about Poet Xiang Yang (向陽)


Xiang Yang is the pen name of Lin Chi-yang
(林淇瀁), who was born in Nantou in central Taiwan in 1955. He received a B.A. in Japanese and an M.A. in journalism from Chinese Culture University , and earned a Ph.D. in journalism from National Zhengzhi University . He worked as chief editor of China Times Weekly and was vice president of the Independence Evening Post. He is now a professor of Taiwanese literature at National Taipei University of Education.


Since the mid-1970s, Xiang Yang has been active on the poetry scene. He founded gathering in the Sunshine Poetry Society in 1979 and was among the first in Taiwan to write modern poetry in Taiwanese. He attended the International Writing Program at the University of Iowa in 1985, helped establish the Taiwanese PEN in 1987 and served as its vice president in 1990. As a prolific writer, he has published 12 books of poetry, two English translations of selected poems, 11 volumes of essays, another seven of literary criticism and social commentaries, as well as children's stories and poetry.


Xiang Yang got the idea of composing the Choral Symphony in Taiwanese after being invited to attend the Poet Festival in El Salvador in October 2007, where the official language is Spanish. However, he was glad to find that local people enjoyed his poems by his expression even though he recited them in Taiwanese which they could not understand.



Photo courtesy of
Xiang Yang
 


The above information is edited by Felicity Fei-Hsien CHIU
(邱斐顯), former editor of center of web and wireless news service, the Central News Agency.


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阿里山的樹根爛了

為了種植山葵,阿里山的樹木被打枝、被刨根,
而大風大雨來時,山上的居民只好承受大自然的肆虐了。

作者:邱斐顯

(註:本文寫於 15 年前, 1994122日刊於自立晚報副刊。1993年底,我造訪阿里山之際,從友人口中得知山上真實的樣貌。我非常震驚得知山葵栽種的故事,決定把這篇文章寫下來並發表。多年前,我翻翻這篇舊作,本以為年代久遠,打算就把這篇文章收藏在我自己的檔案櫃內吧。沒想到 200988日「莫拉克」颱風帶來驚人的雨量,南台灣一夕之間山河變色,山崩土流,海水倒灌;許多家庭,家毀人亡;許多部落,移山倒海。看在台灣人民的眼裡,當然心痛。然而,回頭再看看這篇十五年前的舊作,「莫拉克」颱風--這個七十年來最大的風災雨災,竟作了最真切的教訓。該怪長期執政的國民黨政府吧!無庸置疑,它就是最大的禍首!)


很多人知道,阿里山之美在台灣的觀光界頗負盛名。去過阿里山的人,大概對「祝山日出」,「眠月石猴」,「阿里山神木」,以及「森林小火車」等等都印象深刻,甚至可能還數得出來阿里山上有些什麼當地特產。


可是,很多人不知道,阿里山的森林資源已經被侵蝕得非常嚴重,嚴重到祇能用一句話來形容,那就是──「阿里山的樹根爛了」。 
 

在阿里山的諸多特產中,最聞名的非「芥茉」(即日本料理中沾生魚片用的芥茉醬)莫屬。據說,外銷到日本可以獲得很高的利潤。當地居民為了獲得這種豐厚的利潤,於是拼命增產。 

 

是從一種名叫「山葵」的植物去提煉出來的。山葵的生殖環境需要略帶潮濕的泥土,和相當柔和的陽光。也就是說,最適合山葵生長的環境必須是「有點濕,又不能太濕」。因此,森林地就成了居民們種植山葵的最佳選擇。

 

很多居民為了讓山葵生殖良好,不惜採用一切手段來達到他們的目的。譬如     說,他們用「落枝」(也有人稱「打枝」)的方式,把林木的枝幹打掉,以便讓陽光穿過,因而能夠滋潤在地面上生長的山葵。

 

此外,為了增加山葵的耕種面積,居民們甚至用工具去剷斷林木的樹根,或者把大量的鹽撒在林地上,讓濃度很高的鹽把樹根蝕爛,這就是所謂的「刨根」。

 

「又落枝,又刨根,阿里山的樹木還有救嗎?」在阿里山上工作近三年的朋友心痛地說。刨根的破壞性似乎用常識便可理解,落枝的破壞性就沒那麼直接了。「樹木一旦支幹被砍掉,祇剩一個主幹時,這棵樹就不穩固。如果一大片森林裡的樹木都不穩固,那麼隨時只要一個強風暴雨來襲,都有可能導致巨大的災禍……樹倒,山崩,很可怕的﹗」經過朋友詳細的解釋,我終於明白為什麼一提到種山葵,他就搖頭。

 

「靠山吃山,廣種山葵的居民們難道不知道自己所做所為的嚴重性嗎?」 

 

「大家都短視近利,眼中只看到錢。種山葵的利潤好,大家就一窩蜂去種山葵,誰在乎樹倒山崩﹗你們在台北的大都會裡高唱著『環境保護』、『森林保育』,在這裡,根本沒人把它當成一回事!」朋友很感慨地說。 

 

晚飯的時候,幾個在林務局工作的朋友也一起用餐,我們再度聊起阿里山林木的問題。雖然這趟上山,主要的目的是渡假兼訪友,然而,我的好奇心不知不覺又挑起我過去當記者的本能。 


「這裡的居民破壞森林,濫種山葵,而我們卻沒有辦法制止嗎?」

 

「現在公權力已經無法使人信服了,我們這種林務局的小公務員眼看著森林的樹木爛光也無能為力。只能期待你們透過輿論的方式,去影響社會大眾,來救救阿里山的森林。」其中某一位先生這麼說。 

 

「林務局不是規劃山林、保育森林的第一線嗎?你們不能以林務局公務員的身份去和居民溝通、協調嗎?」

 

「沒有用的!」另外一個先生接著說。「山葵只是讓阿里山的森林爛根的因素之一,還有更嚴重的『山老鼠』的問題威脅著林木的生機。」

 

「你是指那些砍大樹、賺大錢的人?」 

 

「沒錯!那些山老鼠個個富可敵國。他們出入的交通工具全是進口轎車,而我們這些小公務員卻還在騎著機車上班,巡視森林呢!我不是羨慕他們有錢,而是感慨這些毫無公德心的人,用這種手段賺錢。」

 

「剛開始的時候,我們大家都努力嘗試過去勸阻他們不要濫砍樹木,結果他們反過來對我們恫嚇及施暴。幸運一點的,擦身而過時遭來一陣白眼與叫罵。倒霉一點的,可能會挨揍。這些山老鼠有了錢之後,大概用錢去疏通情治單位、警察局的管道。當他們用大卡車載著巨大的林木下山時,檢查哨、派出所都對他們視若無睹。妳想想看,如果情治人員或警察不是被收買,怎麼不當場取締他們呢?」

 

「還有更過份的事呢!我們發現有人違法砍伐竹林而改種檳榔樹,於是執行我們的任務去取締那些不守法的人。誰知道這些違法的人竟然透過監察院對我們施加壓力,甚至讓我吃上官司。妳說,我們還能對這些猖狂的山老鼠怎麼辦?」 

 

眼看著阿里山森林的樹根一直被人破壞,被人挖爛,坐在餐桌上的我們只能心痛。在這個金錢至上的社會裡,蹂躪這塊我們賴以生存的淨土的,不是天災,而是人心的貪念。樹根在爛,更糟糕的是,人心爛得更嚴重。如果沒有積極的辦法來救救阿里山的森林,我相信,它很快就會毀在我們這一代的手裡了。 


 

 

 

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江蓋世著《我走過的台灣路》--第四章風暴
4-8
颱風與淚水

 

 

   一九八七年七月十二日星期天 ,我在台北休息一天,順便打電話,開始連絡第二階段的行程安排。

 

  「賽洛瑪颱風要來了!」

 

  報上得知颱風即將來襲,要不要取消呢?不!風雨中,正好考驗我們的毅力,太好了!

 

   七月十四日 ,我跟蔡文旭兩人,搭火車一路南下嘉義。人坐在車廂裡,看到外面大雨滂沱,不禁想著:「雨哪也落未停?現在,警察伊們無欲掠我,天公伯煞來叫風颱甲阮阻擋,哪也按呢?……嘸管彼濟,『時到時當,無米煮蕃薯湯』,落大雨,我嘛欲照常進行!……」

 

  當天下午兩點左右,我們抵達嘉義市,沒想到,居然放晴了,老天爺給我們一個微笑的大太陽,太好了,天助我也!喔,不!話講太快了,下午三點半,老天爺又下起劈哩叭啦的大雨。我跟蔡文旭,先跑去「嘉義聯誼會」拜會,這個聯誼會,由當地的民進黨人士所組成,民進黨嘉義市黨部尚未成立前,這個會可說是當地民進黨人士聚集的中心。該會的主要幹部有陳禎維、官文雄、張榮臧、陳清聞、陳木村、董木生、田年豐等人,熱烈的響應我們的靜坐活動。

 

  雨這麼大,怎麼辦?沒關係,聯誼會的人,準備好了十幾頂斗笠,每一個斗笠,上頭的圓錐體,都漆成綠色,有的人撐著傘,有的人披著雨衣,有的人只戴著斗笠,也不撐傘,也不穿雨衣,然後手拿著海報上頭寫著「思想無罪」、「我愛美麗島」,就這樣,我們這一群人,聚集在嘉義市議會廣場前,挺立在賽洛瑪颱風的風雨中……。

 

  我自己,頭戴斗笠,頭是乾的,但頭部以下,衣服、褲子、襪子、鞋子,全都淋溼了,想必是老天爺厚愛我們,不忍心讓我們遭受烈日燒烤,反叫我們享受一場免費的淋浴吧!令我感動的是,前來聲援的聯誼會成員,風中雨中,他們都跟我們站在一起,其中,陳清聞前一陣子車禍受傷,腰部無法彎曲,而陳木村也不巧,剛剛車禍受傷,腳步行動不便,但賽洛瑪颱風的威力,並沒有吹走他們的熱情。

 

  「鎮暴警察來啊!伊們派人來啊!」有人大喊,現場引起一陣小騷動。

 

 

  我抬頭一看,兩輛鎮暴大巴士,滿載著鎮暴警察,從我們的前方 五十公尺 處,緩緩駛來,不過,他們並沒有停下來,又從我們的前面緩緩駛去。

 

  看到這情景,我不禁暗地一笑,我們是來這裡示威,要求台獨思想自由,可是,那兩輛鎮暴大巴士,滿載著全副裝備的鎮暴警察,卻在我們面前緩緩的開過去「示威」,不知是無言的抗議呢?還是颱風天,怕他們全副的裝備,遭到大雨而淋溼,而不願下來呢?原因是什麼,我也不曉得,我所知道的是,我們的身體溼透了,我的海報溼爛了,但我們還是堅持到底,颱風天裡,完成我們既定的靜坐示威,而警方派出的近百名鎮暴警察,窩在兩輛鎮暴大巴士裡頭,從我們的面前開過來,過一陣子,又悄悄的從我們的面前開過去,然後,兩輛龐然大物,就消失在大雨滂沱的嘉義街頭。他們不再出現了,而我們繼續坐在那裡,一直到下午五時半……。

 

  我在嘉義市,接受了風雨中的熱情,但是, 七月十五日 ,到了雲林的斗六市,卻嚐到了首度的冷漠。雲林縣是朱高正的故鄉,一九八七年的上半年,朱高正以民進黨立委的身分,跳上立法院的主席台,而名噪一時,成為當時台灣紅透半天邊的政治人物。

 

但是,當我的「贖罪之旅」,來到了雲林斗六市的民進黨籌備處,朱高正的一員大將張豐吉,也是當時籌備處的負責人,他看到我來,簡單的說了一句:  「這是你個人的行動,我們無法支援,民進黨旗也沒有辦法借給你,因為我們沒有做任何決議。」

 

  劈頭的一盆冷水,讓我愣了一下,心想,他們不支援,我也只好尊重他們的決定,也不想跟他們辯解,我只好跟蔡文旭兩個人,自己進行靜坐吧。話說那個斗六市的雲林縣黨部籌備處,並不是位於鬧區,而是在郊區的偏僻的小巷子裡,根本沒有來來往往的行人,只有住家附近的居民,出來探頭一下,如此而已。我們還是把我們的布條,攤在地上,照既定的時間靜坐。就那樣,午后的斜陽照在我們身上,附近的幾條狗,不時在我們面前走來走去,我們就好像蹲在路旁的乞丐,在那裡等待人家的施捨……。

 

  幸好,有兩位那時才認識的朋友,給我鼎力協助,一位是民眾日報的記者蔡慶敦,眼看我們勢單力薄,像是荒郊野外傳道師,因此,他就想辦法連絡一些記者,讓我們的活動上報;另一位是陳鐘德,他長得一副鄉土味,身高瘦長,說話如洪鐘,眼如銅鈴,他跟我素昧平生,眼看我遭受冷淡,大抱不平,就主動提供一輛宣傳戰車,上面有超強的麥克風,另外他又調了幾位朋友,我們五點半靜坐結束,現場只有幾個人,於是,我們幾個人,加上一輛宣傳車,便走上斗六市街頭,展開陽春型的遊行。

 

  結束了雲林冷漠的那站, 七月十六日 ,我們到了彰化市,再度感受當地人士的溫暖。當時,彰化的民進黨人士陳德政、劉峰松、廖永來、陳忠孝、李讀、翁金珠等人,皆前來支援。下午四點,當我一抵達彰化縣議會廣場前,居然看到一、兩百位民眾,聚集在那裡,熱烈的鼓掌歡迎我們來。接下來,我們還是照既定的程序靜坐,遊行,值得一提的是,我一開始靜坐,似乎上天特別的「眷顧」我,馬上下起傾盆大雨,陪我靜坐的民進黨人士,都淋得像落湯雞!

 

  五點半我們開始遊行,彰化的警方,跟前面幾個縣市的做法不一樣,他們派了數十個員警,將我們團團圍住。這時,彰化警察分局長盛育方走過來,要求我們道:「要遊行可以,但不准拿『人民有主張台灣獨立的自由』標語!也不准拿黨旗!」

 

  那有遊行的時候,不拿標語,不拿旗子,那豈不是跟逛街散步一樣嗎?

 

  警方將我們團團圍住,我就立即席地而坐,整個遊行隊伍就癱在那裡。然後警方與民進黨彰化縣後援會會長陳德政協調,最後,雙方協議由陳德政當場提出書面申請,然後他們就放行。好了,我們要走什麼路,目標往那裡,都交待清楚了,這下子可以了吧?分局長盛育方這時終於讓步,於是我們開始一路高喊口號,唱歌,並且有後援會的人一路燃放鞭炮,引起許多過路人旁觀。

 

  在這裡,附帶一提的, 一九八七年七月十五日 ,蔣經國正式宣佈台灣解除戒嚴,國民黨制訂了「國家安全法」,彌補解嚴之後,國民黨政權所失去的部份權力,而他們又在第二年,也就是一九八八年制訂頒布「集會遊行法」,以管制人民的集會遊行。

 

  就在這段解嚴的前後,而「集會遊行法」尚未制訂出來的這段期間,我推出了「贖罪之旅」,由南走到北,也許情治單位把我恨得牙癢癢的,但對我這種非暴力的原則,宣揚台獨思想自由,卻也莫可奈何。

 

   七月十七日 ,與我同行的蔡文旭、兵介仕,他們倆搭車上台北,因為各自有雜誌社工作的因素,只能前來臨時支援我幾天,而無法一路陪同,我只好又一個人,前往南投市,進行下一站的「贖罪之旅」。

 

  當我又是孤零零的一個人,特別感到政治夥伴的重要,我自己要去打電話連絡,自己扛著行李,或搭火車,或搭公路局,到了目的地,還要看當地的情況,如果地方的民進黨人士相當熱心,遊行示威就有人替我打點;要是他們不甚重視,甚至不理又不睬,我一個人還是得硬著頭皮,像個乞丐,蹲坐在那裡。還好,這一趟由屏東北上,偶爾會碰到地方的民進黨領導幹部,因為某種的因素,而無法聲援時,我還是能夠得到一些最基層的黨工,他們給予我熱情的支援,南投的情況,就是如此。

 

   七月十二日 ,我人在台北,連絡全島各地時,南投方面主動跟我連繫的是基層黨工張錫坤。他在電話中問我:

 

  「你愛阮替你做啥米?請你講。」

  「我欲去南投縣議會靜坐,靜坐了後,我想欲遊行市街,請你甲我鬥三工,好否?」

  「我恐驚許榮淑服務處有卡為難,因為,你這咧問題,佇阮南投縣彼呢保守的所在,有卡敏感,但是,我猶原會叫一寡人來甲你鬥提布條仔,做你來,免煩惱啦!」

 

   七月十七日 ,我由彰化到南投市,中途因為轉車,再加上路途不熟,原本跟張鍚坤約好,當天下午四點,就要由位於南投市的許榮淑服務處出發,遊行到南投縣議會,但是我時間掌握不好,匆忙趕到許榮淑服務處時,已經下午三點五十分了。

 

  「 江 先生,你來啊,趕緊咧,四點啊,咱趕緊出發喔!」一位個子矮小的中年男子,一見面,就熱情的跟我握手,催我快點準備上路。他就是主動伸出援手的張錫坤。

 

  我連聲喊謝,然後,趕快把我的綠背心穿上,綠絲帶綁上,就走出服務處,這時,我往外一看,心涼了半截,遊行隊伍呢?宣傳車呢?麥克風呢?通通沒有!

 

  我站在那兒呆住了!只見這保守的南投市街頭,有一些人,離我遠遠的,對我指指點點,我看不到制服警察,更不用說鎮暴警察,那時我的心情,好像來到另外一個國度,人海茫茫,心頭亂紛紛……。

 

  「無管彼濟啦!到遮來啊,我就隨伊行,這位張錫坤,明明講有替我找人來,即馬,卻……」我暗地抱怨著,也不敢講出來。

 

  「 江 先生,時間到啦,行囉,咱緊出發啦!」張錫坤又再度催促我。

  我走到服務處前的街道,這時,已經有七、八名張錫坤叫來的黨工朋友,站在馬路上,準備出發。我定睛一看,簡直笑不出來,我把這一趟「贖罪之旅」,看做是很神聖的,爭取台灣人民思想自由之戰,可是,現在站在我眼前的那七、八個黨工朋友,有穿拖鞋的,有穿汗衫的,有邊嚼檳榔的,有蓬頭散髮的,這樣的組合,好像一支逃難的雜牌軍。

 

  算了,算了,別想那麼多,人家肯撥出時間支援你,已經難能可貴了,你還嫌什麼呢?

 

  他們沒幾個人,但隊伍的前面,卻撐著一面我前所未見的大布條。他們中間,有兩個人各撐著一根一層樓高的長竹竿,竹竿頂端,綁著一條長約 五公尺 ,寬約 一公尺 的大布條,上面寫著兩行字:

 

    「真正的非暴力就是愛」

    「人民有主張台灣獨立的自由」

 

  真感謝他們!用我傳單上的標語,寫在這麼大的布條,豎立在街頭,頗為壯觀。我看了那張布條,頗為滿意,因為我們人雖少,又沒有任何音響設備,走在那南投市車少人稀的道路上,至少還有一點視覺上的效果,嗯,他們真了不起。

 

  「行喔!目標向南投縣議會!」張錫坤站在前頭,大聲吆喝道。沒有掌聲,沒有鞭炮聲,我們這一支迷你形隊伍,開始出發前進。

 

  「咦,怎麼布條晃來晃去?為什麼不拿好,唉,……怕什麼呢?既然走出來了,就好好的拿,晃來晃去,實在太難看了--啊,不--」我暗地尋思。

 

  下午三點五十分,我抵達許榮淑服務處,四點正,我們開始遊行。這中間,只有十分鐘,我為自己的遲到,深感抱歉,但也因匆匆忙忙,沒空跟前來幫忙的黨工朋友,一一握手寒喧,我不知道他們姓什麼,叫什麼,只知道他們是張錫坤找來的朋友,因此,我也沒花時間,好好認識他們,只想等活動結束之後,再跟他們聊聊。

 

  一路走來,我已成了媒體焦點人物,因此,我希望所到之處,能得到熱烈的參與。可是,到了南投,匆匆忙忙,一眼看到前來聲援的,心就涼了半截……。

 

  我皺著眉頭,暗地抱怨,為什麼來聲援我的,竟是這樣難民式的遊行隊伍?可是,我們隊伍出發後,走了不到半分鐘,我那內裡暗藏的優越感,頓時崩潰了,因為當我發現事實真相時,我的眼眶立即湧上熱淚。

 

  原來,站在前排那兩位黨工朋友,其中那位瘦弱矮小的,他是個跛腳的!

  他那麼瘦小,撐著一層樓高的大竹竿,跟另一位同伴,舉著大布條,那布條並沒有打洞,吃滿了風,撐著非常吃力。他死命的抱著竹竿,一跛一跛的往前走,當然,布條也就跟著晃來晃去……。我是何等的可悲?居然瞧不起那些人?我落難時,他們肯伸出援手,而我竟然……。

 

  行進中,我不敢讓淚水掉了出來,只好吞到肚裡去。

 

  那天晚上,我投宿旅館,想到白天這一幕,夜深人靜時,自己一個人關在房裡,暗地流淚……。

 

  我媽媽曾一再的告訴我:「稻子愈成熟滿穗,它的頭垂得愈低。」

  這段南投之旅,讓我再想起我媽媽的這段告誡,也給了我永遠難以忘懷的教訓。

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台灣藝術家英文簡傳(11---詩人吳晟  Poet Wu Sheng 

 


編輯/邱斐顯  

EditiorFelicity Fei-Hsien Chiu 

 

Preface
 

Wu Sheng’s poetry is the first choice in the National Museum of Taiwan Literature’s plan for digital archives. Wu’s poetry will be presented in two sections. In the first section, Wu will give a reading on themes that focus on concerns over the land, with some musical accompaniment. In the second section, some composers will present music based on Wu’s poetry on themes of the love between parents and children.


A note about Poet Wu Sheng 
 

Poet Wu Sheng (Wu Sheng-Xiong 吳勝雄), born in 1944 to a farming family, lives in the rural county of Changhua in central Taiwan. After he graduated from Pingtung Agriculture College in 1971, he taught biology at Hsichou Junior High School . In addition to teaching, he also worked on the family's rice fields. His leisure time, however, was devoted to writing poetry. 

 

In 1975, Wu received the Modern Chinese Poetry Award from the Epoch Poetry Society. The Award Committee had the following to say about Wu’s work: "His poetic style is simple and real, natural and solid. He uses the rural language in a touching and sincere manner." Wu also stated, in his award speech entitled "I Would Rather Lose Myself in Simplicity and Clumsiness," that it is because he was not academically trained in literature and literary theories that his creativity has very little to do with academic forms. Instead, most of his writings, drawn from life experiences, have to do with the sincerity of the hard-working peasantry.


In the 1980s Wu was a leading
nativist local poet and he remains best known for his depictions of rural Taiwan . He was invited to attend the International Writing Program at University of Iowa in 1980. 
 

Visiting the longest river in Taiwan 

 

During his four decades of writing, Wu Sheng published five volumes of poetry and six essay collections. He retired in 2000. A new collection of his poetry and some new poems were published the same year. Later, Wu and his wife embarked on a journey along Taiwan's longest river, the Chuoshui River(濁水溪). This was a project in which Wu and his wife aimed to visit, explore, and report on the bio- and socio- conditions of the environment along the river. Their observation, Notes on the Chuoshui River , was published in 2002.


In 2007, Wu received the Wu Sanlian Literature Award (
吳三連文學獎), which is one of the great honors in Taiwanese literature.


Wu's poetry is deeply enrooted in the ordinary life and work of farmers in Taiwanese villages. They evince pure love for the earth and profound social concern.

 

Strong Taiwanese Identity on his poetry


Wu’s poetry is not mere superficial nostalgia for the land, but serious commentary that radiated from his strong Taiwanese identity and his belief that social justice will eventually triumph. Such is his unchanging style and character since he first emerged in the field of Taiwanese poetry in the 1960s.


In addition to his poetry, Wu is also noted for his essays that delve deeply into Taiwanese village life, bringing to elucidating the contribution that farming makes to economic development, and recording various aspects of the village life and the lives of farmers. While presenting the farmers as resilient, hard-working, sturdy and tolerant, his writing highlights the common spirit of the Taiwanese people.


He recently spent an entire year not only studying the social and environmental conditions along the banks of the Chuoshui River , but also establishing himself as a paragon of Taiwanese intellectualism who puts his love for his land into actual practice.


Wu continues to write poems and essays (both literary and journalistic). He also teaches courses on creative writing in several colleges. Forever concerned with affairs of this land, Wu is keenly observant of the social movements and political reforms in Taiwan . His benches in his front yard have become a gathering place and forum for authors, artists, social reformers, occasional politicians and aspiring young writers. As for the fields where he toiled for most of his life, they are now planted with native Taiwan trees. With his fields turned into forests, he has officially become The Man Who Planted Trees.


 


Photo courtesy of A Good Day Records
(風和日麗唱片行)


The above information is edited by Felicity Fei-Hsien CHIU
(邱斐顯), former editor of center of web and wireless news service, the Central News Agency.

 

 

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台灣藝術家英文簡傳(10---畫家謝里法  Painter Shaih Lifa
  

 

編輯/邱斐顯
EditiorFelicity Fei-Hsien Chiu

 

 

Preface

 

The lifting of Martial Law in 1987 brought a liberalized cultural-political environment that allowed artists to deal with issues of self-identity and self-fulfillment through their works. Art history studies not only help to enhance our understanding of these artworks, but also articulate the inner spirit of a culture. Shaih Lifa’s "Taiwan’s Art Movements under Japanese Occupation," which follows the structure of Wang Bair-juan's王白淵 earlier studies, "Taiwan’s Art Movements (1955)," pulls together scattered and often unorganized pieces of historical evidence, and in doing so, provides us with a clear view of the development of Taiwan’s fine arts.

 

 

A note about Shaih Lifa

 

Born in 1938, Shaih Lifa was separated from his parents, as a child. This unsettling experience drove Shaih to seek solace in art; it also contributed significantly to his artistic sensitivity, and prepared him for a life-long artistic career.

 

Shaih Lifa lived in Paris for two years, and in New York for twenty-two years. During those years abroad, he rose to fame by publishing voluminously on artistic trends in the West as well as on art movements in Taiwan . His books include “Some Notes on Art: The Letters of Shaih Lifa”, “The Adventure of Art”, “The Art World of New York”, “Great Taiwanese Painters of the Twentieth Century”, “Reshaping the Mind of Taiwan”, “Exploring the Historical Horizons of Taiwanese Art”, and “New Taiwanese Art”.

 

Since returning to Taiwan , he has continued his longstanding contribution to Taiwanese art by creating a series of installation projects and publishing more books.

 

In 1972, Shaih Lifa first contributed an article “On Hsu Pei-hung and his art” to the supplement section of the China Times. This article was well-received in art circles in Taiwan .

 

His book, " Taiwan ’s Art Movements under Japanese Occupation," was then serialized in Artist Magazine after the launch of the first issue in 1975. This book is now widely regarded as a significant milestone in Taiwan ’s art history and the Nativist Movement of the 1970s.

 

In describing the basis on which he undertook this study, Shaih once said: “Fortunately, New York helped me to find my own historical perspective which is entirely based on the characteristics of Taiwanese fine arts. I would emphasize that it is imperative that one writes art history in the first person. In other words, when a Taiwanese author pens art history, it can be identified as ‘Taiwanese art history’ as long as it starts with ‘I’.  This is the most basic principle of all historical studies.”

 

Shaih Lifa has long had other interests apart from his art. With the help of friends in literary circles, he has written and published a number of books since returning to Taiwan . These include “Those Painter Friends of Mine”, “Figures unearthed in Taiwan ”, and “Notes on Our Predecessors”. Some of these books feature profiles of Shaih’s friends and colleagues in the art world, while some of them explain his observations and interpretation of historical characters, from a contemporary perspective.

 

Shaih explained his particular interest in historical novels thus: “Whenever I find history too unreal and difficult to engage mentally, I would seek comfort from novels because a good historical novel often makes the stories seem more real and believable than history, and significantly boosts my confidence in developing plots for my writing. When I rewrote " Taiwan ’s Art Movements under Japanese Occupation," which was first published thirty years ago, I felt strongly that many of the paragraphs were in fact written by someone else; it is only when I read it out loud that the book becomes mine.” When Shaih asked his friends to suggest the most appropriate color that represents the novel, the most popular choice turned out to be violet. Shaih therefore chose Grande Chaumière Violette for both his ‘novel’ and for the retrospective exhibition.

 

 

Shaih Lifa’s Concept of the Exhibition

 

“Taking a retrospective view of one’s past by means of exhibited documents is like opening a book for everyone to closely examine. ... I am not entirely sure whether or not there is anything worth noting in my life. Between what’s notable and what’s not, I realize that my life has had too many repetitions thus far. I encapsulate my life experience in the brief act of artistic creation; what you see here are my views on life.”  -- Shaih Lifa

 

Shaih first returned to Taiwan in 1988, six months after the 40-year period of Martial Law had been lifted. At the time, the extent of environmental pollution on the island was appalling. After he went back to the United States , he tried, but failed, to articulate through his paintings how he felt about all this. 

 

After two years of struggle and careful consideration, he finally decided to express his complex feelings through the use of "readymade" objects. This is how the idea of "Aesthetics of Litter" was conceived. This project, which was the main feature of an exhibition on the theme of "Garbage," uses bin bags as a symbol of the twentieth century. It sets out to explore the environmental issues that confront Taiwan in our time. By placing litter in the art museum, "Aesthetics of Litter" raises questions with regard to the status of the litter: does it remain an art object, a status it gained through the art exhibition? Or does it return to its initial character, i.e. simply garbage. By raising these questions, the piece can also be seen as posing the classical questions of conceptual art, i.e. “What is art?” “What is garbage?” “What is an art museum?”

 

An egg was surprisingly hatched from the bin bags after the "Aesthetics of Litter" exhibition. This, in effect, allowed the story of garbage to evolve into what Shaih called "oviparous civilization." Shaih started this project by making a collage with reproduced images of classical European paintings and then scribbled on this collage with transparent paints, before finally putting all this in an egg-shaped container. This signifies a new life cultivated in the egg, which can be seen as a symbol of the rebirth of civilization.

 

Shaih never thought this series would later be acclaimed as representing the peak of his painting techniques. With the simple oval shape, the prototype of four eggs marked the successful conclusion of this project.

 

Shaih also collected a large number of paintings by other artists, after he settled in Taiwan . As he recalled the story behind each painting, he was brought increasingly closer to these works, and came to a realization about the nature of the collection. The collection reflects his experience, disposition, fate, personality and thoughts and symbolizes a certain aspect of his life.

 

Therefore, he decided that the retrospective exhibition should encompass the artwork that he had so far collected, and that he would display them as a single piece of his own work. He felt that this would most appropriately summarize the artistic ideals that he had held for many years.

 

 

A note about Grande Chaumière Violette

 

Grande Chaumière Violette is the most complete exhibition of Shaih Lifa’s works to date. This exhibition showcases Shaih Lifa’s paintings, manuscripts, newspaper clippings and his own art collection. Part of the installation project, "A Landmark Made of Floating Lights," as well as its full-sized prints, will be displayed in the Art Corridor of National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts. This exhibition is organized in conjunction with a conference on Shaih Lifa’s contribution to the writing of Taiwanese art history. Renowned scholars will present their research at the conference, which will explore Shaih Lifa’s thoughts and philosophy on life, as well as his views on the history of Taiwanese art.

 

 

 

Photo courtesy of National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts

 

  

The above information is edited by Felicity Fei-Hsien CHIU(邱斐顯), former editor of center of web and wireless news service, the Central News Agency.




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江蓋世著《我走過的台灣路》--第四章風暴
4-7 我站在法庭上


  一九八七年七月九日,台南市的「贖罪之旅」結束,我連夜北上。

  七月十日,台北地檢處進行「六一二事件」第二次偵查庭。上午九點,謝長廷、洪奇昌與我三人,準時抵達台北地檢處。當天,民進黨並沒有動員全國的群眾,所以來聲援的只有一百多人。幾位民進黨的國大代表陪同我們,進入地檢處大門。偵查庭開始,我首先接受偵訊。從南部的幾趟「贖罪之旅」,我感受到台灣民間,有一股追求自由的力量,即將釋放出來,而台獨運動,更將取代原有的黨外運動,或組黨運動,而成為未來反對運動的主流。那麼,這一場國民黨掌控的司法整肅秀,我不需要再花任何精力,去跟他們做任何辯解,我只要依照甘地的精神,反抗惡法,但願意承受加在我身上的打擊,那麼,我將沒有什麼好害怕的了

  當我走進偵查庭,一眼看到承辦檢察官陳清碧,我已經不像上次那樣,手腳緊張,反過來,我看著他,坐在那裡,同情之心,由然而生,他也是「惡法亦法」的受害者,他坐在那裡,代表著政府,要找出我的罪證,然後,將我起訴,要求法庭將我判罪。

  我站在他面前,沒還等他講話,我馬上拿出一張事先好的聲明唸給他聽:
  「第一、請依叛亂罪起訴;
   第二、請求褫奪公權終身;
   第三、請求速審速決。
   謝謝你。
   以下,你所提的任何問題,
    我將不再回答。」

  陳清碧檢察官,聽完了後,錯愕一下子,臉上馬上擠著一絲微笑,連聲說道:
  「不要這樣子,我們還是要好好的偵查,現在,我開始問你問題,請你據實回答,第一,六月十日當天……,你是不是率領了群眾……?第二,群眾在遊行時……,你是不是……?」

  結果,他每問我一個問題,我都搖搖頭,笑著對他說:
「我不必回答你的問題。」

  他還是照著事先擬好的問題,一個又一個的問我,連下十三道問題,我通通搖搖頭,給予同樣的答覆:
  「我不必回答你的問題。」

  就這樣,檢察官很快的結束了我的偵訊。我深知,他們鎖定我們三人,又大費周章的偵查我們,照當時的情勢判斷,一定會將我們起訴,我好好的配合他們,或出賣自己的良心,為自己做不實的辯解,甚至卑躬屈膝的向他們求饒,根本無濟於事,而我腦海裡,只想到我那張「人民有主張台灣獨立的自由」的布條,如何一站又一站的飛揚下去,法律訴訟,那是律師與法官的事,由他們去吧!

  接下來,由洪奇昌、謝長廷接受偵訊。整個偵訊,一直拖到十二點半,才偵訊完畢,開完庭後,我們三人走出庭外,站在地檢處大門前,由謝長廷手拿著麥克風,向現場的聲援民眾道聲感謝,並抨擊警方的蒐證心態。他說,六一二事件當天,有人打架,檢方應該先偵辦,到底誰是真的施暴者,然後再查查看,誰是首謀,可是,現在一開始,就把我們三人,當做首謀開始偵查,這個程序根本不對嘛!還有,當天的蒐證,花了一整天的時間,可是警方所移送來的蒐證資料錄影帶,卻只有二十分鐘,根本就是經過剪接的濃縮版,事實真象,不會遭到掩飾嗎?而且,檢察官在偵查庭上,所提出來警方證據相片,相片的圖說,提到民進黨的部分,都用「X進黨」三個字來寫,這種侮辱的字眼,顯示出警方的偏見,那麼,警方的蒐證相片,根據他們的偏見來做,又怎能夠提供事實的真象呢?

  謝長廷說完後,我們感謝民眾前來聲援,然後,大家就各自散去。
  我們三個人會不會遭到起訴?目前還在未定之數,而這件事情,民進黨中央已經授權謝長廷、康寧祥、姚嘉文三位中常委,組成「三人小組」,由他們去研究,一旦我們被起訴後,黨中央將如何發動群眾遊行,向國民黨當局施壓。若是民進黨中央軟弱無力,那麼,將來民進黨發動的示威遊行,誰也不敢擔綱了,只要一有衝突,不問青紅皂白,受命當總指揮的,馬上官司纏身,就像六一二事件的謝長廷、洪奇昌他們的遭遇,這樣一來,國民黨他們更會「軟土深掘」。

  雖然上午開了偵查庭,忙了一個早上,但當天下午四點,我還是興致勃勃的,依照既定的行程,跑到台北市議會大門前,繼續「贖罪之旅」台北場的靜坐,雖然人不多,只有二十幾位關心的民眾陪著我靜坐,我還是坐得津津有味,不過中間發生了一個小插曲,在四點半左右,一個三十多歲的男子,操著台灣的口音,一個大步走來,站在我的面前,瞪著大眼,指著我的鼻尖,大聲吼道:「你是不是中國人?」

  我坐在地上,抬頭看了他一眼,本想答道,「我當然不是中國人,我是台灣人。」但想了一想,算了,還是給他一個善意的微笑,我不想說半句話。

  我記得聖經上面有一句話,「原諒他們,因為他們不知道他們在做什麼。」我會同情這位三十來歲的台灣男子,看到我的布條上面寫著「台灣獨立」四個字眼,腦門衝血,心頭抓狂,因為他被國民黨長期教育「我是中國人」,他不知道要去認同這塊生於斯、長於斯的台灣。對於這種認同錯亂的人,我不想去罵他,因為他有他的感情認同世界。我只想在未來,繼續的推動本土的認同運動,畢竟,生長在台灣的人民,你可以難以忘懷秋海棠,你可以經常做神州大陸夢,那是你的感情世界,我們給予尊重,但是,台灣這塊土地,是我們共同的,如果你要生長在這裡,你就要學習認同這塊土地,沒有認同,就沒有愛,不認同台灣,甚至完全否定台灣的那些人,我不知道,他們如何愛這塊土地。

  後來,我身邊的民眾,立刻把那位男子回罵過去,站在旁邊觀看的警察,馬上過來,將那位男子半勸半推,帶離開現場。下午五點四十分左右,我們一行二十多人,手拿著標語,從中山南路一路遊行到中正紀念堂,這一次,我們人雖少,卻是在黃昏時分,公然的踩在博愛特區,可是警方不但不阻擾我們,反而沿途幫我們維持交通,讓我們順利的抵達中正紀念堂廣場,我們走到了廣場中央的升旗台,我把布條撐開,就在那台上,發表簡單的談話,同行的還有田媽媽以及洪茂坤。

  下午六點二十分,我們就站在升旗上面,留下了一張歷史性的相片。

  昏暗的天色,紀念堂那座龐然的宮廷式建築,隱約可見,我們幾個人站在廣場正中央的升旗台上,沒有鑼鼓喧天,沒有滿天煙火,沒有旗海飛揚,沒有黑壓壓的群眾,只有空空蕩蕩的廣場與浮面而來的晚風。

  這個代表著國民黨的威權統治,而我們那一幅鮮明的布條,橫列升旗台上,「人民有主張台灣獨立的自由」,好像十二個金字,非常有力的鑲嵌在那座巨大的宮廷建築!

  七月十日的第二次偵查庭之後,我把法庭的事情,拋到後腦,「贖罪之旅」繼續走下去。七月十一日,我到台北縣議會靜坐,警方依然不管我,倒是軍方的團管區司令,卻來到了現場,對我及參與靜坐的黨工朋友,吆喝來,吆喝去,而當地的派出所主管,卻站立一旁,也不吭聲,只是一旁維持交通而已。那位團管區司令,看到我遊行到台北縣政府廣場前,居然氣極敗壞的要求我們:

  「你們要走,可以,只能走人行道,我不准你們走車道!」
  「笑話!全世界哪有人遊行,閃到人行道邊去遊行?當然要走在馬路上,讓人家知道我們的訴求啊!」一位聲援的黨工朋友抗議道。

  那時,正是下班的尖峰時刻,整個板橋縣政府前,可說是車水馬龍,他們不擋還好,一擋,機車、汽車擠成一團,喇叭聲、抗議聲,聲聲嘈雜。我對那位氣得鼻孔生煙的團管區司令,嚴肅的說道:

  「要嘛,請現在下令將我逮捕!否則,我一定要走在馬路上,我們是要示威的,請你做一個選擇吧!」

  其實,跟我們一起靜坐的,有台北縣的民進黨人士楊木萬、王淑慧等十幾位黨工,遊行的時候,尤清服務處的主任蕭貫譽,帶頭指揮,我們的總人數,不超過二十人,而他們動員的警力,至少我們的兩、三倍以上,況且,我已經表明,只要你一下令逮捕,我馬上跟著你走,我們完全不做抵抗,這來,倒苦惱了這位台北縣團管區司令,要抓呢?還是不抓呢?最後,他們讓步了,我向他們表示謝謝,然後繼續我們的遊行。

  走到這裡,我幾乎可以確定,現在的我,雖然沒有任何公職或黨職的頭銜,但是,我所推動的台獨思想運動,及宣揚的甘地精神,使我成為一位象徵性的人物,而讓地方級的情治長官,也無法擅自作主,將我抓起來,因此,往後我更可以光明正大的,高舉旗幟,踩遍台灣的大鄉小鎮。

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